Comunicación visual. Una perspectiva.

El mundo actual se encuentra inmerso en un universo de imágenes que nos bombardean diariamente y que siempre o la mayor parte de las veces nos dicen algo. La comunicación visual es de hecho una realidad diaria en nuestras vidas, inunda nuestro recorrido desde el amanecer hasta el anochecer y sin lugar a dudas, nos dirige de maneras insospechadas con claros objetivos. La comunicación visual es capaz de educarnos, volvernos compradores compulsivos, convertirnos en empresarios exitosos, elegantes personas; es capaz de, disfrazar nuestra realidad y mostrárnosla de forma descarnada e incluso sacarnos de la realidad y mostrarnos mundos alternos creados por la imaginación.

Pero la Comunicación Visual, no es algo nuevo en la época moderna, ni siquiera, podemos atribuirle un padre creador o alguien que haya acuñado el término; de hecho, la comunicación visual inició con la misma evolución del ser humano, forma parte de su estructura cognitiva y siempre ha sido fundamental para su evolución cultural.

Si todo lo anterior es verídico, podemos concluir que la comunicación visual es la convergencia de ideas e información que es plasmada para ser vista, observada, leída, analizada y discutida mediante una multiplicidad de técnicas de expresión visual, que incluyen un amplio espectro; signos, tipografía, dibujo, color, expresados por intermedio del diseño gráfico, diseño industrial, publicidad, animación, medios audiovisuales y hoy día, cada vez más con recursos electrónicos y sistemas informáticos.

No obstante, el éxito de la comunicación visual está basado en la comprensión del público que la recibe, nunca, en la perspectiva estética ni en la preferencia personal artística; ya que, en esencia, no hay aspectos culturales de orden universal uniformes. La comunicación visual se basa por ende, en el orden cultural de cada comunidad, sociedad, pueblo y civilización.

La comunicación visual si bien nació como una necesidad de expresión del intelecto humano, ésta ha sido a lo largo de los siglos supeditada al otro gran factor que mueve nuestras sociedades, un factor que es común a todas las civilizaciones y desde el inicio de los tiempos es universal; la economía del mercado y el flujo de capital.

Desde ésta perspectiva, las sociedades actuales, no pueden apartarse de la comunicación visual; ésta, está inmersa en el desarrollo psicosocial de las mismas permitiéndoles avanzar hacia nuevos horizontes.

Evolution of Art: More a concept than a simple game.

The art craft took several ways along centuries, in the beginning the several ways to cover human necessities was a simple answer to exigencies of civilization development. Architecture was a great challenge for men, having leaved from caves in pursuit to build a home was an important advance in their progress. The houses were in first instance something simples, constructed with wood and mud, they try to save shelter for men. Whilst the pottery growth and cover basically needs of crockery to eat and take food containers to store the seeds, and even everyday things, the dress passed from be a simple necessity of cover our bodies to be a symbol of status and fashion in high classes. For first societies, the dress was more than a simple need, with discovery of a harmonysense and taste for beauty things, the dress grew from a basic thing, to be a stylish element, full of beauty, good taste and status. In this sense, it was born the fashion industry, dry cleaners, and good designs and of course one of the first gaps between rich and poor. 

For beginning of societies, the discovery of colours was a great advance, the use of mineral earths and plants such as Minium from which Plinio date two specimens, carbonates and acetates of copper, the blue of Alexandria, which was also a cupric sulphate, the woodlouse which Greeks and Arabs obtained precious shades of scarlet. The ancient decorative art account with hundreds of colour tones which have reached us in samples of painting, pottery, statuary, fashion, architecture and so on. The ancient type of colours have no arrived to us at all, just in ceramic, some paints and murals, most part of them found in archaeological sites around the world.  Applying to all aspects of art crafts, colours established a world copied from nature, the colour like a consequence of light reflexion and seeing by our eyes because evolution, was transformed for our own intelligence, sense, sensibility and taste in something  that enjoy our lives. Each meaning in aspect and form was given by our cultures and even colours beginning with a same significance in all cultures; just like red colour which meaning life, they took several significances once population growth permitting with that foundation of new clans and tribes each one of them with a proper cultural current. Nevertheless, arrived middle ages after obscurantism provoked by fallen of Roman Empire, the church from its monasteries began a search of new colours, all of them produced with natural materials. A great example of this is precisely the beautiful all drawn artwork in first books made in Cistercian and Franciscan abbeys throughout Europe in the centuries IX and XIV which were wrote and illustrated just handmade.

In the first times of Renaissance we observe an explosion of colour along Europe, from Spain to Russia, all painters made flaunt using a high profusion of colours; in fact, with the Muslim invasion to Spain in VIII century, Europe was influenced with all knowledge of Eastern recovered by the Arabs in the first instance. We must have into consideration that Muslim culture was for Europe like a fresh wind of eastern, even if this conquest was military, Arabs brought at Europe all ancient Greek and roman knowledge that they had took from Byzantium. In fact was in the beauty city of Cordoba where born the first lights of Spanish Romanesque which had would have a major impact on almost all cultural aspects of emerging Christian kingdoms of northern Spain, so, as the beautiful church of Santa Maria do Naraco, originally the Palace of the Kings of Asturias, it is an example of this with a result of rational and harmonious combination of constructive and ornamental elements of Latin, Eastern (Byzantine, Syrian, Persian and Arabic) and northern origin (Celtic, Germanic, Normans), so that, the Basilica of San IsidoroSan Pedro de la Nave, with their archesbarrel vaults, beautiful capitols decorated with small statuary, are masterpieces of this period. But in Cordoba re born also the romantic literature, and the new philosophical dialogues which would be the first steps to scholasticism. A scholasticism that would be mark of the renaissance thinking in new universities like Sorbonne or Toledo, scholasticism that permit some centuries later at Bernard de Chartres or Piere Abelard discuss the great religious issues of the day and even in the sixteenth century, Francisco de Vitoria lay the foundations of international law with its «De Indis» and «De Juris», after a very long philosophical dialogue with emperor Charles V, dialogue concerning to humanity of amerindians, dialogue that had an unexpected consequence for Europe when Charles V established against opinion says that the Amerindians were humans, humans equal than all of the rest cultures of the known world, and consequently, with rights nd oughts front state and church. Then Charles V resigned to his empire and goes to Monastery of Yuste.

Renaissance brought also, the great architecture dedicated to God but too at the men. The great cathedrals made their appearance to please a God which only the priests knew and what we were subject without the slightest hint of questioning; Thus, rise to heaven the Cathedral of Santiago in Galicia, Leon, Notre Dame, Durham, Laon, Seville and Cambridge, all starting from the Romanesque style; which had reference to the arch Roman point, the roman capitol and jonick order and a solid structure, facing the new Gothic style of light forms intended in a profusion of colour, light and harmony reach skirts of the gods. Then, as if it emerged from the fevered mind of a craftsman who had perhaps observed the ancient Byzantine and Roman mosaics, full stained glass colour, form and narrative figure, appears in the field of architecture, sculpture takes pride of place in cathedrals and fashion in high society; which, paid large sums of money to be portrayed with the saints in stained glass throughout Europe as well as the nobility, the bourgeoisie wanted to participate in the new concept of art. The Art began to have an economical value how added value to social class and status. For all Europe emerged the “Painters”.

The painting represents a major challenge. Until that moment, painters was painting reredos with painting egg or at the Temple and fresh beginning to take shape. The conquest of the «Oil» and its wonderful result was for that time a total state secret. The first watercolours were greatly appreciated, however, amid the struggle between theGhibellines and Guelphoil painting was the conquest of excellence for the master painter. Renaissance impulse also the creativity, it had new designs in all aspects of life, and then the curious men began to observe starts“però, si muove”, and dreamed to flymen dreamed with utopias and new societies and cities perfectly designed and they thought the world was a sphere.

I think that in several aspects, is very clear that human being without art, would not be more excellent than itself, after all, like specie, human being is the most violent of nature, coming from a carnivore primate whose first inventive act was to take a femur to kill, and in response to the fact discovering agriculture, invented capitalism, war, slavery, servitude and the separation of classes, and when discover that it was different from all other creatures of nature, imagined to be from divine origin, and after all, Art was a way used by humans in pursuit to do theirselves more dignifies to their own eyes.


Muslim Spanish Invasion: Military invasion of Arab empire to Spain, happened in 711 A.C. by Tarik Ibn Ziyad General of Musa, governor of North of Africa. The point of arrive was actual Gibraltar ( Gabar al Tarik – Mountain of Tarik ). The invasion signified ending of Visigothic kingdom in Spain and foundation of Emirate of Cordoba and the creation of Kingdom of Asturias and County of Christians of Coimbra which were heirs of ancient visigothic kingdom in so much aspects.

Obscurantism: Historical period marked betweel fallen of Roman Empire and arise of Carolingian Empire. It was deepest in central and North Europe. This period is recognized by Anglesaxon invasion to Britain, uprising of Ambrosius Aurelianus the Elder and his son, legend of Arthur, the war of Queens in France and first Viking invasions.

Minium: Plant from was took a green colour.

Woodlouse: Little insect from ancient Greek and Romans took the colour scarlet.

Order of Cister: Catholic order compossed by men dedicated to God. Generally in its monasteries was created the Art of Illustration.

High Muslim Culture: Period from islam foundation to century XVI. A period which all branches of human knowledge flourish in the Arab world.

Santa Maria do Naranco:Romanesque church cathalogued like patrimony of humankind, originally was the Palace of first Kings of Asturias.

Basilica of San Isidro: Spanish Romasque church catalogued like spanish patrimony.

Peter Abelard: Abad of dominician Order, professor of La Sorbonne of Trivium and Quadrivium, famous because his failured romance with Eloise Abadesse of Saint Clear Order from which exist a profusse romantic lettering.

Francisco de Vitoria: Franciscan Cardinal, confessor of Charles V with whom sustained a long dialogue concerning the humanity of American natives, and which result was the performance of «De Indis» and «De Juris» the two philosophical and juridical treaties over were created the international right. Professor of University of Salamanca, Vatican judge in the Henry VIII case, here Francisco de Vitoria defeats the thesis of Levitario proposed by Henry VIII and its applicability to win the annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine, Infanta of Spain.